Science diplomacy and collaboration, the cornerstones of climate action in the Arctic, are damaged by broken ties with Russia.
Business models across the industry must adapt to the effects of climate change on lives and property, experts stress.
The global rate of sea-level rise from 1940 to 2000 was faster than all previous 60-year intervals over the past 2,000 years.
Among the most exposed cultural sites are the iconic ruins of Tipasa in Algeria and Saloum Delta in Senegal and Kunta Kinteh in Gambia.
Many major metropolitan areas on the East Coast are going to be increasingly at risk.
By the middle of the century much of the delta will have sunk below sea level unless the trend is reversed, scientists say.