Only about half of the heavy metal in the sea results from rainfall. The other half comes from gaseous sources.
As iconic civilizations collapsed between 900 CE and 1,500 CE, others in their respective regions continued to flourish.
Climate action has not been a priority for oil-producing countries in the Middle Ease. Until now.
"It's remarkable that we see similar patterns in coral reef systems all over the world," a scientist said.
Arctic countries are increasingly looking to alternative energy sources to power Arctic development in a sustainable way.
German scientists say the July floods were about more than rain, and climate models need to adjust for factors rarely seen in Central Europe.